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Visit emeraldpublishing. Findings — The findings reveal that social work managers are not only comfortable dealing with budgets but also enjoy the autonomy this affords them in their relationship with their subordinates. The concept of power in an organization. Communication in the organization. The process and models of decision making. Classical organization theory includes the scientific management approach, Weber's bureaucratic approach, and administrative theory.


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The scientific management approach is based on the concept of planning of work to achieve efficiency, standardization, specialization and simplification. The approach to increased productivity is through mutual trust between management and workers. Weber's bureaucratic approach considers the organization as a part of broader society. Observe that this approach is considered rigid, impersonal, self-perpetuating and empire building. In addition, management was considered as a set of planning, organizing, training, commanding and coordinating functions.

Neoclassical theory emphasizes individual or group behaviour and human relations in determining productivity. The main features of the neoclassical approach are individual, work group and participatory management. Modern theories are based on the concept that the organization is an adaptive system which has to adjust to changes in its environment. Discuss the important characteristics of the modern approach to organizations. Modern theories include the systems approach, the socio-technical approach, and the contingency or situational approach. The systems approach considers the organization as a system composed of a set of inter-related - and thus mutually dependent - sub-systems.

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The socio-technical approach considers the organization as composed of a social system, technical system and its environment. These interact among themselves and it is necessary to balance them appropriately for effective functioning of the organization. The contingency or situational approach recognizes that organizational systems are inter-related with their environment and that different environments require different organizational relationships for effective working of the organization.

Ask participants whether they consider the research organization as a social system. Since scientists constitute the core resource in a research organization, their growth is as important as the growth of the organization. A social organization is characterized by complexity, degrees of inter-dependence between sub-systems, openness, balance and multiplicity of purposes, functions and objectives. Now move to goal setting in an organization. Ask participants "Why should goals be set?

How are goals set? First, the overall objectives of the organization are set and then an action plan is evolved. The second step is to prepare members in the organization for successful implementation of the action plan. Individual goals are set in the third step. Periodic appraisal and feedback is the fourth step, to ensure smooth implementation of the action plan. Finally, an appraisal of performance by results takes place. Now discuss the concept of integration and coordination in the organization. These are controlling mechanisms for smooth functioning of the organization.

Organizational differentiation is the unbundling and re-arranging of the activities. Integration is re-grouping and re-linking them. The need for integration arises in the face of environmental complexity, diversity and change.

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How is integration achieved? Obviously, the structure of the organization should facilitate proper coordination and integration of different specialized units. What could happen were the organizational structure not proper? There are several methods to improve integration. These include rules and procedures and professional training.

Next discuss the process in the organization, which involves the concept of power, decision making and communication. Power refers to the ability to get an individual or group to do something or to change in some way.

Power could emanate from position, economic status, knowledge, performance, personality, physical or ideological traits. Observe that power is one of the strongest motives, and affects setting of objectives and availability of resources in an organization. Communication is another important process in the organization and is a key mechanism for achieving integration and coordination of the activities of specialized units at different levels in the organization.


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Finally, discuss decision making in an organization. It begins with goal setting, identification and evaluation of alternatives and the choice of criteria. Develop the organization 3. Set individual objectives 4. Periodic appraisal and feedback 5. Organizational theories which explain the organization and its structure can be broadly classified as classical or modern. Classical organization theory Taylor's scientific management approach Weber's bureaucratic approach Administrative theory.

Classical organization theories Taylor, ; Weber, ; Fayol, deal with the formal organization and concepts to increase management efficiency. Taylor presented scientific management concepts, Weber gave the bureaucratic approach, and Fayol developed the administrative theory of the organization. They all contributed significantly to the development of classical organization theory. Taylor's scientific management approach The scientific management approach developed by Taylor is based on the concept of planning of work to achieve efficiency, standardization, specialization and simplification.

Weber's theory is infirm on account of dysfunctions Hicks and Gullett, such as rigidity, impersonality, displacement of objectives, limitation of categorization, self-perpetuation and empire building, cost of controls, and anxiety to improve status. Administrative theory The elements of administrative theory Fayol, relate to accomplishment of tasks, and include principles of management, the concept of line and staff, committees and functions of management. They should also comply with the rules and regulations of the organization.

An employee requires some time to get used to new work and do it well. Union is strength. Line personnel are those who work directly to achieve organizational goals. Staff personnel include those whose basic function is to support and help line personnel. Members from the same or different hierarchical levels from different departments can form committees around a common goal.