He also provides a short summary of the extinct subfamilies and includes a checklist of every name ever proposed in the classification of ants, from the rank of family down to subgenus, showing the current status and usage of each.
An updated and exhaustively expanded revision of the taxonomic keys found in Holldober and Wilson's The Ants, Bolton's identification guide takes its place alongside that landmark work as the foundation for the study of ants for many years to come. Get A Copy. Hardcover , pages. More Details Original Title.
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Ants of Costa Rica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)
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The resources here have been paid for by various public agencies, and so are public domain. Bolton, B. Identification Guide to the Ant Genera of the World.
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Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. Holldobler, B. The Ants. How to interpret the names used in species accounts A species account is based on a set of specimens that are similar enough usually on morphological grounds to be considered the same species. When the type specimen of a published species or any available species-group name; e.
When a set of specimens is thought to be a new species, and a provisional name has been proposed but not published yet, the species account may bear the provisional name, the author, and "ms" for manuscript name instead of a year of publication. It is very important that these provisional names not be viewed as "available" satisfying the technical requirements of publication of new names, as stated by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature [ICZN].
The third edition of the ICZN is fairly clear about the unavailability of electronically published names Article 8 and names explicitly stated as provisional Article Furthermore, a discussion of the draft of the 4th edition The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. General session of the Commission, Budapest, August World Wide Web from which copies could be obtained on demand would not constitute published work Art. According to article 13 of the ICZN, to be available a name must be accompanied by a description or definition purported to differentiate the taxon, or be "accompanied by a bibliographic reference to such a published statement" italics mine.
Thus, if provisional names are to be used in a publication, avoid including diagnostic information, and ideally make an explicit disclaimer that the names are not being proposed as new. I suppose you could cite the Web pages as your source, construed as a "personal communication" and not a published statement.
Genera that are diverse and show high levels of geographic variation may have no synthetic revisions or keys, yet still contain many described species and subspecies.
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Local faunal surveys produce specimens of these genera that may be sorted into locally defined species. The task of identifying the local species involves comparing specimens to published descriptions of all available names in the genus, and, because published descriptions may not sufficiently describe diagnostic characters, comparing specimens to the type specimens of the available names.
Type specimens are dispersed in museums throughout the world. These are substantial, time-consuming tasks. Even if these tasks can be accomplished, two or more local species may closely match a type specimen from a distant locality, or a local species may differ slightly but consistently from a distant type specimen. Allopatry or lack of specimens from intervening regions often prevent examination of geographic variation.