Baker Berry Ref. E97 Oxford : Oxford University Press, c E52 Emmerson, editor ; Sandra Clayton-Emmerson, associate editor. New York : Routledge, K49 McHugh, Frederick W. New York : Garland Pub. E53 The Encyclopaedia of Islam [Leiden] : Brill, [ Also, Print Ed. The New Catholic Encyclopedia 2nd ed.
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From its inception, the SEP was designed so that each entry is maintained and kept up to date by an expert or group of experts in the field. All entries and substantive updates are refereed by the members of a distinguished Editorial Board before they are made public. Consequently, our dynamic reference work maintains academic standards while evolving and adapting in response to new research.
Enciclopedia dell'arte medievale Roma : Istituto della enciclopedia italiana, c E5 New York : Grove's Dictionaries, c Sherman Ref. Cambridge : D. Brewer, C67 BTW, I love your podcast. Am up to Henry III now and noticing the number of podcasts per king is increasing rapidly. It imposed the complete exclusion from Christian society. Appanage The landed estate of a royal prince, often accompanied by extensive legal privileges Apostate The term used to describe one who left religious orders, or who returned to a heresy having once renounced it Assart An area of wasteland, often forest, which had been cleared and taken into cultivation.
Often the tenant would have special privileges, to encouraged them to go and do the work. Up until , assarting was popular, after the Black Death pressure on land was of course much reduced. Assize Meeting of feudal vassals with the King, and the edicts issued from it. Hence the double meaning of the word court. All Barons would be called Lord or something grander; not all Lords would be a Baron.
Online A Dictionary Of Medieval Terms And Phrases 2007
Benefice Grant of land given to a member of the aristocracy, a Bishop, or a monastery, for limited or hereditary use in exchange for services. Also known as a fee. Benefit of Clergy Privilege enjoyed by members of the clergy, including tonsured clerks, placing them beyond the jurisdiction of secular courts; this was the right which Henry II and Thomas Becket fought over so hard.
Bordar Middle ranking peasant, farming more land than a cottager but less than a villein. A typical small holder would have acres of land, often as separate strips in different fields. Borough Town with the right of self government granted by royal charter.
Bovate A measure of land: The area that could be cultivated by a plough drawn by one ox in one year. Burgess The holder of land or house within a borough. Bushel Volume. Caltrop Small device scattered on the ground to injure and make any horses lame Canon A law or body of laws of a church. Member of a clerical group living according to a canon or rule. Cantref Welsh political and administrative division, similar to English shires. The amount of land that could be tilled in a year using a team of eight oxen. Chamber The financial office of the royal household; thus chamber finance, the system of managing royal finances from the chamber rather than the Exchequer.
Chamberlain Officer of the royal household, responsible for the Chamber. He was trherefore responsible for administration of the household and the private estates of the King. One of the Great Officers of State. Became to be the effective head of government once the office of Justiciar disappeared. One of the great Offices of State. In time, came to meet in the White Chamber and become the House of Lords when parliament was in session. Constable The title of an officer given command in an army or an important garrison.
Court of Common Pleas A common law court to hear pleas involving disputes between individuals. It was responsible for almost all civil litigation as well as manorial and local courts. Common law meant that law which was common to all, ratrher than affected by local liberties. Villagers worked in the demesne for a specified numbers of days per week. Destrier Warhorse; so called because it would be led using the right hand Dreng Name given to a free peasant in Northumbria and sometimes in Yorkshire and Lancashire. The name usually implies that land was held in return for military service. Duke Title from the Roman Dux, which has been held over from Roman time by the ruler of a district called a duchy.
In England the title is reserved for members of the royal family. Earl The highest title attainable by an English nobleman who is not of royal blood. Also known in earlier times as Ealdorman. Word related to Jarl. Escheat Right of a feudal lord to the return of lands held by his vassal should either die without lawful heirs or suffer outlawry. Estovers The right to gather wood. Exchequer Financial department of the royal government.
dictionary of Medieval Terms
The chief officers of the Exchequer were the Treasurer, the Chancellor and the Justiciar. Sheriffs, in their role as regional chief accountants, presented reports to the exchequer at Easter and Michaelmas. Excommunication Exclusion from the membership of the church or from communion with faithful Christians Eyre The king and his justices would traditionally travel through the kingdom to deliver justice. As the king became more centred at Westminister, justices would continue to travel — and were called Justices in Eyre. From the french errer to travel.
Fair Market held at regular intervals, usually once to twice a year. Fairs tended to offer a wider range of goods than normal markets. Often, a second fair would be held about a month later, to permit the re-hiring of workers unsuited to their original jobs. Often, workers and labourers would carry a symbol of their trade. Sucking a straw is said to have been the signal used by agricultural labourers who were looking for work. Farm Fixed sum, usually paid annually, for the right to collect all revenues from land; in effect, rent.
Lords could farm land to vassals, receiving a fixed annual rent in place of the normal feudal obligation. Many sheriffs farmed out their shires, contracting in advance to pay a fixed annual sum to the crown, thus obtaining the right to collect any additional royal revenues for their own profit. The resulting extortion became widely unpopular. Fealty Oath by which a vassal swore loyalty to his lord Fee, Fief or Foeff Normally, land held by a vassal of a lord in return for stipulated services, chiefly military.